International Relations

Relations between nations or states should be guided by the principle of equality. State of Indonesia in the conduct of international relations, through political independent and active foreign policy which is dedicated to the national interest. It is primarily intended for development purposes in all areas and join the world order that implement lasting peace based on freedom, and social justice.

In order to improve the quality of international cooperation, the Indonesian people should be able to improve the quality and performance of foreign personnel to be able to perform pro-active diplomacy in all fields to build a positive image of Indonesia in the international world. Therefore, the role of Indonesian diplomats abroad in order to really be able to give information that the broadest to the world community about the true state of Indonesia. The role of mass media about the bad image of Indonesia abroad, slowly should dicounter with a balanced coverage. In addition, diplomats must also be able to provide protection and defense against Indonesian citizens and interests, and take advantage of every positive opportunity for the national interest.

For the sake of international relations and cooperation both from the broader political and legal aspects of the formal, the Indonesian state has become the 60th member of the UN on September 28, 1950. Likewise, other countries, the Indonesian state has put diplomatic or consular representation in other countries.

Definition, Importance And Medium-Medium Of A State For International Relations

1. Understanding International Relations

International relations according to the book Strategic Plan Political Pelaksnaan Foreign Affairs (Strategic Plan), is the relationship between nations in all its aspects is done by a country to achieve the national interests of the country. This relationship is in the Encyclopedia Americana seen as political relations, cultural, economic or defense.This concept is closely related subjects, such as international organizations, diplomacy, international law, and international politics.

In order to understand more about the understanding of international relations, here are some sense according to some experts.

a. Charles A. MC. Clelland

International relations is the study of relevant circumstances surrounding the interaction.

b. Warsito Sunaryo

International relations, a study of the interaction between the type of specific social units, including the study of the relevant circumstances surrounding the interaction. As for the meaning of specific social units, can be interpreted as: states, nations and organizations throughout the country is international relations.

c. Tygve Nathiessen

International relations are part of political science and therefore the components of international relations include international politics, international organizations and administrsi and international law.

The concept of international relations is closely linked to international subjects, such as international organizations, international law, international politics, including diplomacy.

2. Significance of International Relations for a State

A country can conduct cooperation between countries or international relations, where kala kemerdekeaan and its sovereignty has been recognized both de facto and de jure by other countries. Relations between countries is one of the relations of cooperation is absolutely necessary, because no other country in the world that does not depend on other countries.

This dependence requires the need for inter-state relations. In the implementation of the relations between countries needs to be based with the principle of equality and is based on free will in implementing the relationship. The importance of international relations for a country partly because of the factors as follows:

• Internal factors:

That is the concern its survival is threatened whether by coup or intervention from other countries.
• External factors:

1. That is the law of nature that can not be denied that a country can not stand alone, without the assistance and cooperation with other countries. Dependence, especially in efforts to solve economic problems, political, legal, social, cultural, defense and security.

2. To build communication across the nation and state in order to realize a productive cooperation in meeting the various needs of national interest of each country.

3. Achieve a new world order that can provide benefits to welfare and eternal peace for the citizens of the world community.
Relations of cooperation between countries (international) in the world is required to meet the needs of life and existence of the existence of a country in the international association order, in addition to the creation of peace and prosperity of life which is the desire of each human being and the country in the world. Every country of course has its advantages, disadvantages and different interests. These things that encourage international relations and cooperation.

Cooperation among nations in the world based on mutual respect and mutual benefit.International cooperation, among others, aims to:
• Stimulating economic growth in each country.
• Creating mutual understanding among nations in developing and enforcing world peace.
• Establish justice and welfare for all people.

3. Means of International Relations for a State

A relationship between nation and state (international) will be able to run well, when there are guidelines that serve as the foundation footing. International guidelines, should be obeyed by the parties who entered into relations both written and unwritten. Some important tools in building international relations are as follows:

1. Principles of International Relations

According to Hugo de Groot, that in international relations the principle of equality is the basis of a free will and consent of some or all countries. The goal is for the mutual benefit of those who unite themselves in it. In international relations, known to some principle based on the area and scope of application of legal provisions for regional and individual citizens.

There are 3 (three) principles in international relations between the one with lainnyan affect each other:

• Territorial Principle
This principle is based on state power over the region. According to this principle, countries implement the law for all people and all the items on its territory. So, to all goods or persons who are outside the area, apply foreign law (international) fully.

• Principle of Nationality
This principle is based on state power for its own citizens. According to this principle, every citizen wherever he was, still menapat legal treatment of his country. This principle has the power exteritorial. That is the law of the country remain in force also for its citizens, even in foreign countries.

• The principle of Public Interest
This principle is based on state authority to protect and manage the interests in public life. In this case, the state can adapt to all circumstances and events that has to do with the public interest. Thus, the law is not bound by the limits of the territory of a country.

If these three principles are not addressed, there will be chaos in the law between nations (international). Therefore, from country to country perlua there is a regular and orderly in the form of international law. However, often there are problems and disputes-disputes that need to be solved. For example the issue of dual-citizenship, national borders, military service and the taxpayer.

Critical Factors in International Relations

Some factors that will determine the process of international relations, both bilaterally and multilaterally, are as follows, 1) National Strength (National Power), 2) Population, 3) Resources, and 4) Geographical Location. Based on these factors, it can be understood how a country in the conduct of international relations.

First: If a State has had 4 (four) with a good power factor, they are relatively more lenient to not conduct international relations.

Second: But if a country which has 4 (four) power factor is weak, they have entered into international relations.

Today, with the advance of information technology development and rapid communication, almost all developing countries and developed countries have entered into a cooperative relationship with other countries (international relations).

The three groups of countries mentioned above (A, B, and C) need each other, then there was interaction (relationship) international. Given the background of international relations between countries that differ from one another, then there was a grouping of forms of international relations today.

The emphasis in international relations, there is an emphasis on: the field of Defence and Security (Defense), in Economics, Social, Cultural and even there are countries that only emphasized in the field of ideology alone. For the Indonesian people cooperation between countries is interwoven between countries which refers to some legal basis, namely:

1. Alenia IV of the 1945 Constitution which reads “… join implement a world order based on freedom, lasting peace and social justice.”
2. Article 1 of the Charter of the United Nations (UN), which states the law regarding the following:

1) UN international peace and security and working to prevent the dangers which threaten peace and security.
2) The United Nations to develop friendship among nations on the basis of equality and the right of self-determination within the framework of world peace.
3) The United Nations to develop international cooperation in order to solve problems of economic, social, cultural, humanitarian, and respect for human rights without distinction of race, gender, language and religion.
4) The UN became the center of the settlement of international problem-solving.

1. International agreements ( treaty) is an agreement (agreement) which formally declared between two or more States concerning the establishment and provision of rights and obligations of each party. Then, the parties are bound by the agreement, both peacetime and in wartime. In general, treaties adhered to by the parties concerned because of the principle of pacta sun servanda (agreements between countries should be respected).
2. Specifically contained in the Declaration on international marine law. Indonesia since December 13, 1957 fight in which Juanda Declaration states of the Republic of Indonesia bounded by straight lines with a distance of 12 miles from straight baselines drawn from the outermost point of the outer islands as territorial sea. The Declaration recognized the United Nations on 10 December 1982 and ratified by the Indonesian government with the Law No. 17 of 1985 on the Law of the Sea.

4. Types of International Agreements

a. Bilateral Agreements
Specific bilateral agreements (treaty, contract) because only regulate matters concerning the interests of both countries. Hence, bilateral agreements are “closed.” That is a possibility for other countries to participate in the agreement.
There are several examples that can be delivered as a concrete illustration of bilateral agreements.
• Agreement between the Republic of Indonesia to the PRC (People’s Republika China) in 1955 regarding the settlement “dual citizenship”.
• Agreement between Indonesia and Thailand on the “Andaman Sea Boundary” in side northern Straits of Malacca in 1971.
• Agreement “extradition” between the Republic of Indonesia and Malaysia in 1974.
• Agreement between the Republic of Indonesia and Australia on defense and security area of the two countries on December 16, 1995.
b. Multirateral Agreements
This agreement is often referred to as the law-making treaties because normally regulate matters of public interest and is “open.” Multilateral agreements not only set the interests of countries that are doing it, but also the interests of other countries that also (not a participant) in a multilateral treaty them.
For more details, there are a few examples of multilateral agreements such as the following.
• Geneva Convention, 1949 on “Protection of War Victims.”
• Vienna Convention, 1961, on “Diplomatic Relations”.
• International Sea Law Convention of 1982 on “Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zone, Exclusive Economic Zone and Continental Shelf.”

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